Pancreas Function – Definition, Hormones, Mechanisms and Organs

    hello buddy, this time the author will convey material about the function of the pancreas – complete with understanding, function, hormones, mechanisms, and organs so that it is easy to understand.

    Understanding Pancreas

    Pancreas is – a double gland that has properties such as exocrine and endocrine, a composite gland associated with a structure very similar to that of saliva.

    It is about six inches long, and consists of three parts. The pancreas is also an accessory organ in the digestive system.

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    Pancreas Function


    The following are 2 functions of the pancreas organ, including:

    1. Pancreas Function For Exorin Organs

    Following are the functions of the pancreas as an exocrine organ:

    1. NaCHO3

    Is a liquid that serves to make wet in food that enters the duodenum, which will cause damage to stomach acid

    2. Lipase

    Is an enzyme with the function of breaking down fat into fatty acids glycerin, but the lipase enzyme also plays a role in regulating fat deposits so that they are not excessive in the body.

    3. Tripsinogen

    Is a component of proteinase or protein cleavage that is not yet active, when it forms the enzyme trypsin which breaks down peptone into several amino acids.

    4. Amylase

    Is an enzyme with the function of converting starch to polysaccharides or making simple sugar acids, which can occur because the body can only absorb sugar in the form of monosaccharides.

    5. Enzyme Carbohydrase

    An enzyme with the function of breaking down sugars in food, enzymes break down disaccharides into two monosaccharides in the simplest form of sugar.

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    2. Pancreas Function For Endocrine Organs

    Following are the functions of the pancreas as an endocrine organ:

    1. Sel Alfa Pancreas

    Cells that produce the hormone glucason to increase blood sugar levels, reduce sugar reserves in the liver and then transfer it into the blood.

    2. Sel Beta Pancreas

    These cells have the function of producing the hormone insulin, which is to lower blood sugar.


    If the sugar in the blood is too high, insulin stores excess sugar in the liver, if this hormone is lost then the person has diabetes mellitus.

    3. Sel Gamma Pancreas

    These cells have the function of producing pancreatic polypeptides. The function of polypeptides is to slow down the absorption of food.

    4. Sel Delta Pancreas

    Pancreatic delta cells are cells with the function of producing somatostatin, the function of the hormone hematostatin is to inhibit the secretion of glucagon by alpha cells.

    Pancreas Function in General

    The following are the types of functions of the pancreas in general, including:

    • Have exocrine glands and glands that secrete certain substances without going through the blood vessels.
    • Have endocrine glands or glands that secrete certain substances through the blood vessels.
    • Has the task of maintaining the balance of body sugar levels.
    • Has pancreatic juice for the digestive process in the digestive tract.
    • Has a role in maintaining the balance of body fat.
    • Has a metabolic role in both anabolism and catabolism in sugar and other forms.
    • Functions in fat metabolism as a producer of proteases such as trypsin, amylase and lipase to support the digestive process.

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    Pancreas Endocrine Hormones


    The following are the 3 endocrine hormones of the pancreas, including:

    1. A . Cell Hormone

    A cell hormone releases a hormone called glucagon, glucagon increases the level of glucose in the bloodstream by metabolizing stored glucose in the bloodstream.

    This is important because vital organs depend on glucose for energy, the amount of glucagon excreted by A cells depends on blood sugar levels.

    High blood glucose levels inhibit the production of glucagon, whereas low glucose levels, because hypoglycemia or intense physical activity causes the amount of glucagon produced to increase.

    2. B-cell hormone

    B cell hormone is an endocrine that allows to regulate glucose levels by producing insulin, insulin plays a role that is contradictory to glucagon.

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    Glucagon is made to increase glucose levels, insulin is made to lower blood sugar levels.

    The purpose of insulin is to lower blood sugar by spreading glucose to the muscles and allowing it to remain in the bloodstream.

    3. D Sel Cell Hormone

    D cell hormone is to release a hormone known as somatostatin, somatostatin acts as a regulator in the endocrine pancreas.

    The main role of this hormone is to inhibit the formation and secretion of other hormones, with respect to glucagon and insulin, the production of somatostatin increases when there is too much hormone in the body.

    Pancreas Mechanism of Action


    Is a metabolic balance depending on blood sugar stored in concentrations close to the ebb and flow point, which is about 90 ml to 100 ml in humans.

    If the blood sugar exceeds this value, insulin is released and the glucose concentration decreases; when the blood sugar drops below the set point, glucagon increases the glucose concentration.

    Through negative feedback, blood sugar concentration determines the relative amounts of insulin and glucagon excreted by the islets of Langerhans.

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    Organ Hormon Pancreas

    The organ driven by the endocrine pancreas in the pancreatic hormone is the liver insulin converts excess sugar in the blood and converts it into glycogen stored in the liver.

    Meanwhile, glucagon converts or breaks down stored sugar in the form of glycogen in the liver into sugar and circulates into the blood vessels when we are hungry without consuming sugar.

    So if we don’t eat, we can still move because we get energy from sugar reserves or glycogen stored in the liver.

    While the target organ hormone or somatostatin is the pancreas itself, somatostatin is a regulator of the production of the hormones insulin and glucagon.

    Somatostatin production increases when either insulin or glucagon is being overproduced.

    Diseases of the Pancreas

    The following are some of the causes of disease in the pancreas, including:

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    1. Pancreas Pankreatitis

    Pancreatitis is a serious disorder of the pancreas whose intensity can range from a relatively mild disorder.

    And heal yourself of a disease that is fast, fatal, and unresponsive to various treatments.

    2. Pancreas Tumor

    Pancreatic malignant tumors are pancreatic incidence of about 3-5% of all cancers found and 17% of all cancers found in the digestive tract.

    3. Pancreas Insulinoma

    Pancreatic insulinoma is a rare pancreatic tumor in which it produces insulin, a hormone that lowers blood sugar in only 10% of malignant insulinomas.

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    How to Treat Pancreas Disease

    Here are some ways to treat pancreatic disease, including:

    1. Insulin Injection

    This insulin injection is usually given to people with type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes who can no longer be treated with oral medications, it’s about lowering blood sugar.

    2. Enzyme Administration

    Administration with cystic fibrosis receiving pancreatic enzymes, enzymes are usually supplied via enzyme supplements.

    3. Drainage

    This drainage is done by inserting a needle and tube through the skin into the pseudocyst, the tube is then connected to the abdominal cavity or intestine.

    4. Pseudocyst surgery

    Pseudocyst surgery can be performed using a laparotomy technique, performed by means of a long vertical incision in the abdomen.

    5. Pancreas cancer resection

    This surgery is performed by removing the gallbladder, part of the head of the pancreas and the base of the small intestine.

    6. Pancreas Transplant

    This transplant is performed in patients with cystic fibrosis and diabetes using a replacement pancreas donor.

    7. Islet Cell Transplant

    Transplantation is done by removing the patient’s islet cells and replacing them with pancreatic islet cells from the donor.

    Well, that’s all the discussion from material about the function of the pancreas, hopefully this discussion can be understood and useful for all of us, thank you so much.

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